Basic CHARMM Scripting
How to run CHARMM
While you can run CHARMM interactively, one usually tells the program what to do by means of a script. Under Unix (at least for non-parallel versions of the program), this means that in order to execute a (short) CHARMM calculation, one runs from the command line (Unix Shell prompt)
charmm_executable < charmm_input_script.inp
exploiting input redirection available under all Unix shells. Since as we shall see shortly CHARMM output tends to be verbose, one normally also redirects the output to a file, thus ending up with
charmm_executable < charmm_script.inp > charmm_output.out
Of course, instead of charmm_executable use the path to the CHARMM executablr you have installed on your computer and replace charmm_input_script.inp and charmm_output_file.out by the names of the actual script which you want to run and the file to which you want to save your output.
- Residue Topology File (RTF) This file defines groups by including the atoms, the properties of the group, and bond and charge information. CHARMM has standard Residue Topology Files for nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. An example of a simple RTF, which describes a single residue (TIP3P water) is given below.
* Residue topology file for TIP3 water * 31 1 MASS 4 HT 1.00800 H ! TIPS3P WATER HYDROGEN MASS 75 OT 15.99940 O ! TIPS3P WATER OXYGEN RESI TIP3 0.000 ! tip3p, generate using noangle nodihedral GROUP ATOM OH2 OT -0.834 ATOM H1 HT 0.417 ATOM H2 HT 0.417 BOND OH2 H1 OH2 H2 H1 H2 ! the last bond is needed for shake ANGLE H1 OH2 H2 ! required ACCEPTOR OH2 PATCHING FIRS NONE LAST NONE END
As you can see, this file containes a title and immediately following it the rather crypting string "31 1". This is the version number of the topology file, which is tied to the CHARMM version it was released with. Next comes two MASS statements, each of which define an atom type. Atom numbers 4 and 75 are assigned to TIP3P hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. Next comes the actually definition of the residue, which should be fairly self-explanatory, and then the file ends with the END keyword.
- Parameter File (PARA or PARM) This file determines the energy associated with the structure by defining bond, angle and torsion force constants and van der Waals parameters. CHARMM has standard parameter files for nucleic acids, lipids, proteins carbohydrates, and water. An example of a parameter file with all of the parameters needed to simulate a TIP3 water molecule as defined above is given here. Note that the atom naming convention in the parameter file matches that in the topology file. Failure to uphold the atom naming and numbering conventions will yield incorrect results, which is why topology and parameter files are released together and it is generally not a good idea to mix topologies and parameters (however, it is possible to append one set of topologies and parameters to another).
* parameter file needed to simulate TIP3 water * BONDS !atom type Kb b0 HT HT 0.000 1.5139 ! ALLOW WAT ! FROM TIPS3P GEOMETRY (FOR SHAKE/W PARA OT HT 450.000 0.9572 ! ALLOW WAT ! FROM TIPS3P GEO ANGLES !atom types Ktheta Theta0 Kub S0 HT OT HT 55.000 104.5200 ! ALLOW WAT ! TIP3P GEOMETRY, ADM JR. DIHEDRALS IMPROPER NONBONDED nbxmod 5 atom cdiel shift vatom vdistance vswitch - cutnb 14.0 ctofnb 12.0 ctonnb 10.0 eps 1.0 e14fac 1.0 wmin 1.5 !atom ignored epsilon Rmin/2 ignored eps,1-4 Rmin/2,1 OT 0.000000 -0.152100 1.768200 ! ALLOW WAT !TIP3P OXYGEN PARAMETERS, adm jr., NBFIX obsolete HT 0.000000 -0.046000 0.224500 ! ALLOW WAT !TIP3P HYDROGEN PARAMETERS, adm jr., NBFIX obsolete END
Note that there are no dihedral or improper dihedrals parameters necessary for TIP3 water as there are only 3 atoms in the residue. Some parameter files also contain CMAP parameters, which are 2-dimensional grid corrections for dihedral angles (see MacKerell, A.D., Jr,. Feig, M., Brooks, C.L., III, Extending the treatment of backbone energetics in protein force fields: limitations of gas-phase quantum mechanics in reproducing protein conformational distributions in molecular dynamics simulations, Journal of Computational Chemistry, 25: 1400-1415, 2004 for further details).
- Coordinates (COOR) These are the standard Cartesian coordinates of the atoms in the system. These are typically read in or written out in PDB or CHARMM card (CRD -- the default file format used throughout CHARMM) file format. The card format keeps track of additional molecule information that can be useful for structure manipulation (i.e. residue name, segment name, segment id, resdiue id, etc.). Below is an example of a .crd file and the information in contains:
title = * WATER title = * DATE: 4/10/07 4:25:51 CREATED BY USER: USER title = * Number of atoms (NATOM) = 6 Atom number (ATOMNO) = 1 (just an exmaple) Residue number (RESNO) = 1 Residue name (RESName) = TIP3 Atom type (TYPE) = OH2 Coordinate (X) = -1.30910 Coordinate (Y) = -0.25601 Coordinate (Z) = -0.24045 Segment ID (SEGID) = W Residue ID (RESID) = 1 Atom weight (Weighting) = 0.00000 now what the CHARMM crd file containing that information looks like... * WATER * DATE: 4/10/07 4:25:51 CREATED BY USER: USER * 6 1 1 TIP3 OH2 -1.30910 -0.25601 -0.24045 W 1 0.00000 2 1 TIP3 H1 -1.85344 0.07163 0.52275 W 1 0.00000 3 1 TIP3 H2 -1.70410 0.16529 -1.04499 W 1 0.00000 4 2 TIP3 OH2 1.37293 0.05498 0.10603 W 2 0.00000 5 2 TIP3 H1 1.65858 -0.85643 0.10318 W 2 0.00000 6 2 TIP3 H2 0.40780 -0.02508 -0.02820 W 2 0.00000
- Protein Structure File (PSF) The PSF holds lists of every bond, bond angle, torsion angle, and improper torsion angle as well as information needed to generate the hydrogen bonds and the non-bonded list. It is essential for the calculation of the energy of the system.
- Internal Coordinates (IC) This data structure defines the internal coordinates for atoms and can be used for analysis. Internal coordinates represent the position of atoms relative to one another rather than relative to Cartesian axes. In many cases, it is not necessary to deal directly with the internal coordinate data structure, however it is possible to manipulate it within a CHARMM script.
- Non-Bonded list (NBONds) This is a atoms which are not bound to each other. It is used in calculating the non=bonded energy terms and electrostatic properties. The non-bonded list does contain atoms that are in atom-to-atom contact and engaging in van der Waals interactions.
- Constraints (CONS) Constraints fix atoms in exactly one position during the simulation. This information is stored internally in the IMOVe array.
- Images Data Structures (IMAGe) This data structure is used to help create symmetrical structures and contains bond information. This is a general image support system that allows the simulation of almost any crystal and also finite point groups. There is also a facility to introduce bond linkages between the primary atoms and image atoms. This allows infinite polymers, such as DNA to be studied. For infinite systems, an asymmetric unit may be studied because rotations and reflections are allowed transformations.
- Crystal Data Structures (CRYStal) The crystal module is an extension of the image facility within CHARMM that allows calculations on crystals to be performed. It is possible to build a crystal with any space group symmetry, to optimize its lattice parameters and molecular coordinates and to carry out analysis of the vibration spectrum of the entire crystal similar to normal mode analysis. All crystal commands are invoked by the keyword CRYStal.
Basic CHARMM script elements
First, let's do something really silly and start up charmm reading from an empty file; which can be easily accomplished by executing
charmm_executable < /dev/null
CHARMM prints a header telling you copyright info, version and some more stuff, followed by a warning
Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) - Developmental Version 35b3 August 15, 2008 Copyright(c) 1984-2001 President and Fellows of Harvard College All Rights Reserved Current operating system: Linux-2.6.18-128.7.1.el5(x86_64)@n138.lobos.[+ 15] Created on 12/ 2/ 9 at 2:23:40 by user: tim Maximum number of ATOMS: 360720, and RESidues: 120240 Current HEAP size: 10240000, and STACK size: 10000000 RDTITL> No title read. ***** LEVEL 1 WARNING FROM <RDTITL> ***** ***** Title expected. ****************************************** BOMLEV ( 0) IS NOT REACHED. WRNLEV IS 5
The job finishes by printing some status info. The interesting part is the warning from which we learn that CHARMM expected a "title". Indeed, each CHARMM script should start with a title, and if the main script tells CHARMM to read from another file, the program also expects to find a title at the beginning of that file.
A title should not be confused with comments. E.g., it can only occur at the beginning of a file (we'll explain the apparent exceptions when we encounter them). Title lines start with a star or asterisk (*); to indicate the end of the title give a line containing only a star. (A title can consist of up to 32 consecutive lines) Thus,
* This would be a short title *
If you start CHARMM with a short file containing the above snippet (=title), you get the title echoed in uppercase letters
RDTITL> * THIS WOULD BE A SHORT TITLE RDTITL> *
instead of the warning when using the empty file.
Having blabbered so much about titles, what are comments: A comment in a CHARMM script is everything following an exclamation mark (!_ i.e.,
! this is a comment on a line by itself
and this would be a line containing a CHARMM command, followed by a comment
ENERgy ! as you might expect, this command calculates an energy
Ending a CHARMM script
So far, CHARMM finished when it reached the end of the script file (as the line
NORMAL TERMINATION BY END OF FILE
in the output informs you. It's OK to end a CHARMM script in this manner, but the preferred way of stopping CHARMM is by issuing the
command. We, thus, can create a first, completely useless CHARMM script, looking like
* A CHARMM script doing nothing * ! we really should be doing something, but in the meantime ! all we know is stop
In addition to the title, the comment is echoed as well. Note that CHARMM now prints upon finishing
NORMAL TERMINATION BY NORMAL STOP
This indicates that the CHARMM script has finished successfully; an abnormal termination message will print if CHARMM exits with an error.